A Project On Delhi Metro
Metro is a fastest way of transportation system, it covers long distance in short time and hence it can save the valuable time of the peoples. Metro is a most convenience transporting system rather than a public transporting system. It provide us most expensive amenities in least and with full of security for all person and most profitable for senior citizen and disabled peoples.
Hence, due to the safe, reliable, comfortable and fast it is the best than other transporting system.
The metro rail first established in India on 24th October 1984 in Kolkata from Dumdum. Crowdy city like Kolkata It was the biggest present for people of this city. After the Kolkata, metro train start in Delhi in 2002, first metro train run in delhi at 24th December 2002.
The concept of a mass rapid transit for india first emerged from a traffic and travel characteristics study which was carried out in the city in 1969. In 1984, the Delhi Development Authority and the Urban Arts Commission came up with a proposal for developing a multi-modal transport system, which would consist of constructing three underground mass rapid transit corridors as well augmenting the city’s existing suburban railway and road transport networks.
While extensive technical studies and the raising of finance for the project were in progress, the city expanded significantly resulting in a twofold rise in population and a fivefold rise in the number of vehicles between 1981 and 1998. Consequently, traffic congestion and pollution soared, as an increasing number of commuters took to private vehicles with the existing bus system unable to bear the load. An attempt at privatising the bus transport system in 1992 merely compounded the problem, with inexperienced operators plying poorly maintained, noisy and polluting buses on lengthy routes, resulting in long waiting times, unreliable service, extreme overcrowding, unqualified drivers, speeding and reckless driving. To rectify the situation, the Government of India and the Government of Delhi jointly set up a company called the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) on 3 May 1995.
DMRC is a special purpose organization vested with great autonomy and powers to execute this gigantic project involving many technical complexities, under a difficult urban environment and within a very limited time frame.
The first line of the Delhi Metro was inaugurated by Atal Behari Vajpayee, the then Prime Minister of India, on 24 December 2002, and thus, it became the second underground rapid transit system in India, after the Kolkata Metro. The first phase of the project was completed in 2006.
The Delhi Metro :-
Delhi Metro is a metro system serving Delhi and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited. It is also serving in the National Capital Region of India like Noida, Gurgaon, and Ghaziabad. The network of Delhi metro consists of six lines with total length of 189.63 kilometres with 142 stations. It has a combination of upperground and underground lines and these lines uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock.
Four types of rolling stock are used:
- Mitsubishi Rotem broad gauge
- Mitsubishi Rotem standard gauge
- Bombardier Movia
- CAF Beasain standard gauge
Construction of Delhi metro started in 1998, and the first section, on the Red Line, opened in 2002, followed by the Yellow Line in 2004, the Blue Line in 2005, its branch line in 2009, the Green and Violet Lines in 2010, and the Delhi Airport Metro Express in 2011.
Delhi is a metropolitan region in India. With a population of 22 million, in terms of area delhi is the world’s second most populous city and the largest city in India. Due to the moving of people from other state toward Delhi for employment, majorly effected to transport system. We can say that moving in transport is a important part of daily life for Delhi’s peoples. Hence, Delhi metro not just made travelling easy and comfortable but also made significant environmental and social impact on the capital.
Delhi Metro has added an extra charm to the historical city of Delhi. It does not take much time to go from one place to another and after use it peoples save their valuable time. The ever increasing pollution problem too has been reduced to a greater extent, with the advent of Delhi Metro. You can now avoid the traffic and reach your destination on time. Development and construction work of metro is also give a chance to Unemployed people to become a employed.
After starting of metro in Delhi selling of vehicles are reduce and also reduce pollution which which major effect on global warming. But with reducing pollution Delhi metro is also become reason basic reason for increase environment pollution because many of trees are cutting for the making of metro stations.
Delhi metro change the structure of Delhi. Because of starting of Delhi metro, some new technology come to Delhi and help in become one of the fastest growing cities in the world.
Delhi metro also help in Delhi economical system. Delhi is the second most expensive city in India for expatriates in terms of cost of living and after coming the metro this condition growing up. Delhi metro attract to the foreigner toward this city and it help in increasing Delhi tourism visitors.
Impact of Delhi metro :-
Metro is the biggest gift for urban cities like Delhi, Kolkata and Bangalore as a best way of traveling. After coming the metro a biggest problem of traffic jams is solve mostly in Delhi. And after coming the metro in Delhi number of accidents are also decreasing in Delhi.
Unlike the Mumbai railway network, Delhi never had a mass transportation systems besides the buses. But after the start of the Delhi Metro in December 2002, it has not just made traveling easy and comfortable but also made significant environmental and social impact on the Capital. Traffic had been an utter koas in Delhi before the start of the Metro rail, but there has been a progressive increase in the reduction in daily vehicle demand due to people shifting to the Metro rail for commuting.
- A study conducted by the Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), reveals that the Metro railway has taken the share of 22,697 vehicles and this share is projected to increase approximately to 40,000 for all other modes of travel such as cars, buses, two wheelers and auto-rickshaws by the end of 2007. Correspondingly, 16.6 lakh vehicle km will be saved till 2007 and this is likely to result in a saving of various types such as maintenance cost of road vehicles by Rs. 218 crore, fuel saving worth Rs. 172 crore and saving in road maintenance cost of Rs. 288 crore
- The Metro railway has resulted in reduced consumption of fuel containing hydrocarbons, the study claims this has resulted in emission savings of 2,275 tonnes. These saving are likely to go up to 3,968 tonnes by the end of this year.
- People in the city save 66 minutes every day on an average by travelling to and fro by the Metro rail, which has resulted in a saving of Rs. 415 crore up to 2006 as their earning capacity time increases.
Effect of Delhi metro on Delhi:
The growing demand for public transport in mega cities has serious effects on urban ecosystems, especially due to the increased atmospheric pollution and changes in land use patterns. An ecologically sustainable urban transport system could be obtained by an appropriate mix of alternative modes of transport resulting in the use of environmentally friendly fuels and land use patterns. The introduction of CNG in certain vehicles and switching of some portion of the transport demand to the metro rail have resulted in a significant reduction of atmospheric pollution in Delhi. The Delhi Metro provides multiple benefits: reduction in air pollution, time saving to passengers, reduction in accidents, reduction in traffic congestion and fuel savings. There are incremental benefits and costs to a number of economic agents: government, private transporters, passengers, general public and unskilled labour. The social cost-benefit analysis of Delhi Metro done in this paper tries to measure all these benefits and costs from Phase I and Phase II projects covering a total distance of 108 kms in Delhi. Estimates of the social benefits and costs of the project are obtained using the recently estimated shadow prices of investment, foreign exchange and unskilled labour as well as the social time preference rate for the Indian economy for a study commissioned by the Planning Commission, Government of India and done at the Institute of Economic Growth. The financial internal rate of return on investments in the Metro is estimated as 17 percent while the economic rate of return is 24 percent. Accounting for benefits from the reduction of urban air pollution due to the Metro has increased the economic rate of return by 1.4 percent.
“If the social and economic benefits are quantified then the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has helped the city of Delhi in saving Rs. 1,167 crore already, which will increase to Rs. 2,072 crore by the end of 2007.”
Advantage of Delhi metro:
Delhi metro is a very profitable thing for this urban city. As a capital of India Delhi’s population is continuously increasing and hence, Delhi metro is the most important part of Delhi transporting system. It reduce the crowd from road and also reducing the number vahicles private or public transport and due to the reducing of number vehicle number of accident are also reduce.
A personal review of a person or a daily traveler in Delhi transport:
मैं एक छोटी कम्पनी में प्राइवेट जॉब करने वाला एक साधरण व्यक्ति हूँ।मुझे हर रोज़ अपने काम को करने के लिए दिल्ली ट्रांसपोर्ट में यात्रा करनी पड़ती थी। और हर रोज़ मुझे बसों के देरी से आने के कारण , ट्रैफिक जाम्स का जगह–जगह पर मिल जाने के कारण और कभी–कभी कोई दुर्घटना हो जाने के कारण ऑफिस पहुँचने में देरी हो जाया करती थी। लेकिन जब से मेट्रो रेल सेवा चालू हुई है मैं न सिर्फ अपने ऑफिस समय पर पहुँच जाता हूँ बल्कि मेरी काफी समय की बचत भी हो जाती है जिससे मैं अपने अन्य काम कर लेता हूँ और इसकी सुरक्षा व्यवस्था ठीक होने के कारण मैं इसमें अपने आप को काफी सुरक्षित भी महसूस करता हूँ।
- Mukesh Yadav ( Daily traveler )
Delhi metro and other transporting systems:
The major advantage of all these systems is their ability to move large numbers of people quickly.
The metro isn’t just good for travel though. It’s main aim was to reduce the number of cars plying the roads every day in Delhi – and so it does. Less cars = less smog = less pollution and cleaner air. But its environment friendliness extends far beyond mere pollution reduction. Its regenerative braking systems save the country 400, 000 carbon credits a year and now they’re looking to reduce the metro’s reliance on non-renewable energy resources even further by using solar power. And let’s not forget that most of the stations along the Metro’s Blue Line all harvest rainwater for the city. No more worrying about droughts anymore here.
Delhi metro is a fastest way of transporting line. Hence, we can save our time after use it and we can use this saving time into other field and we can generate more profit. With the saving of time it is also made traveling easy and comfortable. Delhi metro is fill with full of security and hence it is a very secure way of transporting system than others.
Delhi is one of the city in India there population level is very high. Delhi state is loaded with business man, sales man, many of workers and we can easily say that most of peoples in Delhi is an employee or an employer or engaged in their own work. For this purpose they must need a transporting system for traveling one place to other for do their work properly. Hence transporting system like buses, trains, auto-rickshaws. taxis and other public transport help him to complete their needs but one side it is help full for him on other side it is harm full due to increase number of vehicle on road and it cause increasing traffic jams. Due to the traffic jams many peoples lost their valuable time. People not only lost their valuable time but also lost 42 Crore / month due to engaged in traffic jams.
Some other importance of metro:
Since the launch of Delhi Metro, the Delhi peoples open a another way of traveling witch is fastest, comfortable, secure and regular.
Help in employment:
When Delhi metro stabilize in Delhi, it open source for un-employ people their employment. It open ye source like security guards, ticket maters, many of worker who engage in construction work and a clerk or metro’s official work etc.
Convenience and security:
Delhi metro is the most convenient and safest mode of public transport. From the entry gate of metro station till metro rail every person pass through many of security region.
- First we pass through the electrical sensor gate or metal detector if we have any metal things then it give response in beep and we can not enter in metro with harmful metallic thing like rod, knife etc.
- Our bags pass through electronic bag checking machine. Which work on the electromagnetic rays and this machine detect hard things.
- We can’t enter or leave metro station without ticket. We get a coin or card and we pass with it from a sensor machine. After touch to sensor machine gate open and then we can enter in station.
- 24*7 many security guards are also present at metro station.
If we talk about the convenience of Delhi metro it is also very helpful for general public.
- Sitting system in metro rail is very comfortable for all the people.
- Much more space are present for standing people in metro rail.
- In metro rail computerizing system are present which give us information about the next station and also something about the rail.
- We can enter in the rail line by line into monitoring of security.
- Draggle to the metro rail or station are also punishable.
- For the women an extra coaches present in metro rail.
- For the women, a lady police available at metro station all the time.
Dis-Advantage of Delhi metro:
Delhi metro is very helpful for us but not always. One side it is helpful and convenient for us and another side it create some troubles. And in other word we can say that with the lots of advantage, Delhi metro have many of dis-advantage also.
Delhi metro construction:
Many of slums, gardens, jungles, stadium ground are ruined by DMRC (Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited) in the construction of Delhi metro. Because of which many poor people compelled to leave their home, many society lose their greenery gardens, due to the cutting of trees Delhi environment effected it is cause the increase global warming .
In the construction work of metro we using much bigger thing like krain, loader, concrete pillers andother machinery. We dose face many of problems to arranged them. The bigger size of machinery things, sometime become the reason of an accident, due the bigger size of pillors and machinerys when it slip during the work it fall down on road, buildings and on other thing like buses, cars etc. it destroy that thing completely. Sometimes many of people are also become victim of this accident.
Diversion of road:
In the making of metro line many of road are diverse. Due to this diversion roads are divided and some of road loose their area. From this diversion traffics jams are increases and also increases number of accident due to small area of road. And after the start metro line construction work the structure of Delhi road map has changed.
For the stabilize a metro station under the ground and in the making of underground metro lines many tons of soil are removing from the earth. Hence, the agriculture power of soil are decreasing and for making a long line of metro it made weekly to the surface of earth.
Effect of Delhi metro on environment:
Delhi population is much more than India’s other cities. Hence, the demand of public for transport is also much more for this crowdy city. Due to this reason number of vehicle increases in Delhi rapidly. Hence, due to the more vahicles, pollution like noise and air are also increasing in city. After coming the DTC CNG buses Delhi pollution level are decreases from but not more, at this time metro train is helpful for environment because it working on electricity.
But this metro train always not helpful for our environment with some of advantage metro is also hazard for our environment. Thus, we can say that Delhi metro has both positive and negative effects for the environment.
The Delhi metro transportation has not just made travelling easy and comfortable but also made significant environmental and social impact on the Capital. It is totally work on electricity hence it reduce fuel consumption. With reduce the pollution and due to work on electricity it is also helping to save to the natural resources.
Conducted by the Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), the study reveals that the Metro railway has helped save 33,000 tonnes of fuel and prevented creation of over 2,275 tonnes of poisonous gases. Also, it has helped commuters in the city save 66 minutes every day on an average and reduced the daily vehicle demand.
After the open regular service of metro rail Delhi road traffic problem decreasing continuously. This change in traffic problem also help to reduce noise and air pollution in Delhi.
For its energy efficient measures, the Delhi Metro has become the first rail system in the world to be awarded the Gold Standard foundation – a globally accepted certification standard for carbon mitigation projects.
In 2011, the Delhi Metro project became the first railway project in the world to be certified for carbon credits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, by the United Nations. DMRC saved 112,500MW of power by using regenerative brakes in the trains, and reduced carbon emissions by 630,000t yearly.
To create a Metro station or construction work of metro station and the metro line we need much more space. We arrange this space after destroying many of things like trees, greenery gardens and parks. These all are play very important role to make environment healthy. But due to making a metro line or station number of this type of area are decreasing continuously and this incident effecting badly on our environment.
According to an estimation made some time ago, roughly 16,000 trees are needed to be felled for the Metro expansion. As many as 8,030 trees have to be cut to construct the Yamuna Vihar-Mukundpur line, 6,338 trees need to be felled for the Janakpuri-Botanical Garden line, while the Central Secretariat-Kashmere Gate line will account for 1,468 trees,” said a DMRC official.
The 65-km phase 1 saw felling of 13,000 trees while the 125-km phase 2 saw felling of 21,000 trees.
For making a underground metro lines, miles of hole made by machineries. These holes become after ruined many of underground valuable thing like historical stone, tomb etc. and Fertile power of soil also effecting by this.
Use of technologies in Delhi metro:
Delhi metro is a mostly technology based modern public transportation system.
Smart card– A Smart Card in size and shape is like a Credit Card. There is an embedded microprocessor inside. As compared to the magnetic strip technology the microprocessor on the smart card provides added security.
DMRC use the girders that will save time as well as minimize the inconvenience caused to people during the construction. Delhi Metro had used these 25-metre girders in the construction of the Airport Express corridor as well.
Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has adopted a new technology to build underground subways on busy roads without disrupting the traffic movement, the subway is being constructed using the ‘Box Pushing’ technology.
Information Technology- Mostly work on metro station work on Information technology. From ticket counter to the metro rail many of things work on for it, like electrical direction board give us direction for our destination, in metro rail computer announce about the metro rail and also give us information about coming metro station.
GPS- The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. This system use in metro for locating correct location of metro.
Ticket wending machine- Ticket Vending Machine (TVM), is a vending machine that produces tickets. For instance, ticket machines dispense train tickets at railway stations, transit tickets at metro stations.
Delhi metro’s effects on Delhi economy :
The growing demand for public transport in mega cities has serious effects on urban ecosystems, especially due to the increased atmospheric pollution and changes in land use patterns. An ecologically sustainable urban transport system could be obtained by an appropriate mix of alternative modes of transport resulting in the use of environmentally friendly fuels and land use patterns. The introduction of CNG in certain vehicles and switching of some portion of the transport demand to the metro railb have resulted in a significant reduction of atmospheric pollution in Delhi. The Delhi Metro provides multiple benefits: reduction in air pollution, time saving to passengers, reduction in accidents, reduction in traffic congestion and fuel savings. There are incremental benefits and costs to a number of economic agents: government, private transporters, passengers, general public and unskilled labour. The social cost-benefit analysis of Delhi Metro done in this paper tries to measure all these benefits and costs from Phase I and Phase II projects covering a total distance of 108 kms in Delhi. Estimates of the social benefits and costs of the project are obtained using the recently estimated shadow prices of investment, foreign exchange and unskilled labour as well as the social time preference rate for the Indian economy for a study commissioned by the Planning Commission, Government of India and done at the Institute of EconomicGrowth. The financial internal rate of return on investments in the Metro is estimated as 17 percent while the economic rate of return is 24 percent. Accounting for benefits from the reduction of urban air pollution due to the Metro has increased the economic rate of return by 1.4 percent.
After the coming of metro in Delhi, the structure of Delhi in completely changed and it is become more charming for the outsider and for tourists. We all know that Delhi metro transportation has made travelling easy and comfortable. Hence, it attract to tourist toward us and also more helpful for them. However, Delhi metro help in the Delhi tourism increase to the tourist. It does major effect on Delhi economy.
After coming the metro, many of technology are used for this and for complete this necessity foreigner company want to invest in Delhi for metro. This Delhi metro’s work open a way of opportunity for the people for employment of un-employee to become an employee. It open a of jobs like security guards, ticket maters, many of worker who engage in construction work and a clerk or metro’s official work etc.
How we can improve the condition of metro :
On this time in Delhi, metro is the most important transportation system for the peoples. The Delhi metro transportation has not just made travelling easy and comfortable but also made significant environmental but with some of advantage metro is also has many of dis-advantage for peoples, traffic, for nature/environment etc. But we can improve this conditions by many of ways. Like :
- When we cut the tree for the making of metro line. We can set more tree in its place to other places for maintain the environmental issues.
- We can increase the number of coaches of metro train. Because many peoples are reach their destination on right time.
- We can make some personal coaches for woman, senior citizen and abnormal peoples.
- We can start personal regular bus service for specially between the metro station in small towns or cities, where we can’t reach at metro station easily.
Delhi metro is very helpful for us as a fastest way of traveling and comfortable. It is also biggest gift now a day for the working peoples or daily traveler in Delhi. Delhi metro help in the change structure of Delhi and increase it’s charming which help attract to tourist and increase Delhi tourism.
From the lots of way it is very helpful for us like it work on electricity, it is a fastest way of transportation, it is comfortable and so on and it is very good example or type of modernity because metro is full fill with technologies and this technology is the sign of modernity.
With some of good point Delhi metro also have bad points. One side it helping for environment due to work on electricity but cutting the trees and reduces the greenery places, it is also create many of problems for the environment.